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INTENSE SWEETENERS

Intense Sweeteners.

Learn more about the main properties and differences between sweeteners, sugar replacers and nutritive sweeteners as well as the relevant EU-regulation and the particular ADI-values on this page.

intense sweetener stevia

Tailor-made solutions for various applications:

  • Acesulfame K
  • Aspartame
  • Cyclamate
  • Neohesperidine DC
  • Saccharin
  • Steviol glycosides
  • Sucralose
  • Blends of sweeteners

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History of Intense Sweeteners.
History of Intense Sweeteners.
Regulations on sweeteners.
Regulations on sweeteners.
Difference between sweeteners.
Difference between sweeteners.
ADI-Value.
ADI-Value.

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Our sales portfolio includes the following intense sweeteners. You will will learn everything worth knowing about the fundamental properties of the most important sweeteners.

FACTS AND FIGURES

Difference between sweeteners.

Sweetener is the generic term for all sweetening substances.
It encompasses three different categories:

Sugar
Sugar

This group includes not only sucrose (sugar) but also monosaccharide like fructose and glucose. Honey for example also belongs in this category.

Sugar Substitutes
Sugar Substitutes

These are primarily sugar alcohols (polyols) such as isomalt with special properties such as reduced calories. They are also gentle on teeth and suitable for diabetics. Sugar substitutes are bulk sweeteners.

Intense Sweeteners
Intense Sweeteners

Essentially, the function of these is purely for sweetening and, because of their normally high sweetness intensity, are only used in small doses. For the most part, sweeteners are calorie-free and are often used in combination with other intense sweeteners. They are also frequently needed to sweeten polyols.

ADI-Value.

The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is the amount of a food additive that can be ingested daily with the diet, even during a lifetime, without an appreciable health risk on the basis of all facts known at the time.

Basically the ADI values are established by scientific expert committees that advise national and international regulatory authorities:

  • In the European Union the “Scientific Committee on Food” (SCF) is responsible
  • On an international level the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, a body within the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations/World Health Organisation)

To determine an ADI all available toxicological data from scientific studies is reviewed. The maximum dietary level of the additive that is without demonstrable toxic effects is called the “No Observable Effect Level” (NOEL). This level is then adjusted by inclusion of a large safety factor – often 100 – providing a large margin of safety.

The ADI values are recommendations and do not have legal status. They are taken into consideration during the rulemaking process by the legislator.

Overview of the ADI value of sweeteners (mg/kg body weight)

intense-sweetener-adi-value-table

(Values according to JECFA-evaluation)

Regulations on sweeteners.

The use of sweeteners in foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals requires legal authorisation. Before an approval of sweeteners as food additives they undergo extensive scientific tests, lasting up to ten  years, which must prove that the amount of the additive that is expected to be consumed by humans is safe.

The Regulation (EC) 1333/2008 sets the rules on food additives, e.g.:

  • Lists all approved food additives
  • Shows functional classes of food additives
  • Lays down the conditions of use

The information on this site is subject to a disclaimer and a copyright notice.

History of Intense Sweeteners.

Ancient Rome: “SAPA”: Extraction from fermented wine which is heated and from which magnificant crystals seperate.
Mid of 19. century (1841-1855): Discovery of Thaumatin
1878/79: Discovery of Saccharin
1887: Begin of Saccharin -Production at Fahlberg List AG
1914 – 1945: World War I and World War II and post war period: sharp rise in the consumption of Saccharin, it becomes a sought-after comodity because of the shortage of sugar.
1937: Discovery of Cyclamate
1950: Abbott markets Cyclamate under the brand name “Sucaryl”.
1963: Discovery of Neohespiridine DC
1965: Discovery of Aspartame
1967: Discovery of Acesulfame K

1975: Diet directive permits the use of Saccharin and Cyclamate in
certain dietary foodstuffs.
1976: Discovery of Sucralose
1980: Joint technical development of Sucralose by Tate & Lyle and McNeil
1990: Acesulfame K and Aspartame has general use approval as a sweetener in Germany
1994: Entry into force of the EU-Sweeteners Directive
1994: Neohesperidine gets general use approval as a sweetener in the EU
2004: Sucralose gets general use approval as a sweetener in the EU
2009: Neotam gets general use approval as a sweetener in the EU
2011: Stevia (Steviol glycoside) gets general use approval as a sweetener in the EU
2014: Advantame gets general use approval as a sweetener in the EU

Acesulfame K
History
  • discovered in 1967 by Clauss and Jensen
Synthesis
  • belongs to the dihydrooxathiazinondioxide sweetener group. It is either made of acetoacetic acid derivatives or else these occur during its production as intermediate products.
Sensoric features / sweetening power
  • rapidly perceptible sweetness
  • approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar
Physiological characteristics
  • is not converted in the body and is excreted unchanged by the kidneys
  • calorie-free
  • toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
Technical characteristics
  • colourless crystals or white, crystalline powder
  • outstanding technical sweetener
  • very thermostable and therefore suitable for baking and cooking
  • storage-stable / good shelf-life
  • enhances and intensifies flavours
  • best synergy results with Aspartame and Cyclamate
  • at high doses, Ace K has a slight aftertaste
ADI-value
  • 15 mg per kg of body weight
Fields of application
  • table-top sweeteners (tablets, spoon-for-spoon powders and liquid sweeteners)
  • water- and milk-based drinks
  • puddings, desserts
  • ice cream and frozen desserts
  • sweets, chocolate
  • muesli, cornflakes, cereals
  • chewing gum
  • spreads
  • jams, marmalades
  • canned preserves and pickled vegetables
  • marinades, sauces, delicacies
  • toothpaste, mouthwash
  • pharmaceuticals
acesulfam_k_2
Aspartame
History
  • discovered in 1965 by James Schlatter at G.D. Searle
Synthesis
  • Aspartame is a dipeptide made up of the amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine as methyl ester. It is synthesised by bonding the two amino acids with subsequent esterification.
Sensoric features / sweetening power
  • tastes like sugar and has no bitter aftertaste
  • is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar
Physiological characteristics
  • in the body it splits up into its components and so is unsuitable for people with phenylketonuria
  • it is not completely calorie-free as it is made of elements of protein (4 kcal); but because of its low dose it is of no importance
  • toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
Technical characteristics
  • white, crystalline, odourless powder
  • not very thermostable and so often used in combination with Acesulfame K
  • can lose its sweetening power with lengthy storage
  • enhances and intensifies flavours
ADI-value
  • 40 mg per kg of body weight
Fields of application
  • table-top sweeteners (tablets, spoon-for-spoon powders and liquid sweeteners)
  • water- and milk-based drinks
  • puddings, desserts
  • ice cream and frozen desserts
  • sweets, chocolate
  • muesli, cornflakes, cereals
  • chewing gum
  • canned fruits
  • marinades, sauces, delicacies
  • toothpaste, mouthwash
  • multivitamin preparations
  • pharmaceuticals
aspartame
Cyclamate
History
  • discovered in 1937 in the USA by Audrieth and Sveda
  • placed on the market in 1950 by ABBOTT under the brand name “Sucaryl”
Synthesis
  • Cyclohexylamine is usually converted with the help of amido sulphonic acid. It is treated at temperatures over 100°C in high boiling solvents or in a pressure reactor. This produces cyclohexylammonium salt, which is converted with the corresponding hydroxides. This releases cyclohexylamine.
Sensoric features / sweetening power
  • pleasant taste profile
  • 35-40 times sweeter than sugar
Physiological characteristics
  • is excreted by the kidneys mostly unmetabolised and unchanged
  • no physiological gross calorific value i.e. calorie-free
  • toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
Technical characteristics
  • needle-shaped colourless crystals, odourless
  • extremely thermostable
  • suitable for baking and cooking
  • can be stored for a long time
  • not hygroscopic
  • pH-value: 5.5-7.5
  • synergetic effect with all other sweeteners; especially suitable in combination with Sodium Saccharin 450-times at a ratio of 10:1
ADI-value
  • 7 mg per kg of body weight
Fields of application
  • table-top sweeteners (tablets, spoon-for-spoon powders and liquid sweeteners)
  • water- and milk-based drinks
  • puddings, desserts
  • sweets, chocolate
  • bakery products and baking mixtures
  • muesli, cornflakes, cereals
  • chewing gum
  • spreads
  • jams, marmalades
  • toothpaste, mouthwash
  • multivitamin preparations
  • pharmaceuticals
  • canned preserves and pickled vegetables
natrium_cyclamate
calcium-cyclamate
Neohespiridine DC
History
  • discovered in 1963 by Horowitz and Gentili
Synthesis
  • the source materials for the extraction of dihydrochalcon (DC) sweeteners are flavones, which are contained in the peel of citrus fruits. The Neohesperidine found in the peel of bitter oranges is converted into Neohesperidine Chalcone through alkali treatment. Chalcone is converted into dihydrochalcone through hydrogenation.
Sensoric features / sweetening power
  • liquorice/peppermint aftertaste
  • 1,500 – 1,800-times, customary concentration 400 – 600-times
Physiological characteristics
  • is absorbed by the body in insignificant amounts and so is practically calorie-free
  • toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
Technical characteristics
  • flour-like powder
  • mainly used as a flavour-enhancer
  • masks the bitter taste of other ingredients
  • very thermostable and therefore especially suitable for baking, cooking and pasteurised foodstuffs
  • very stable in watery solutions with pH values of 2-6
  • storage-stable
  • only low dosage necessary, otherwise too extreme liquorice/peppermint taste
  • high synergetic potential with other sweeteners
ADI-value
  • 5 mg per kg of body weight
Fields of application
  • table-top sweeteners (tablets, spoon-for-spoon powders and liquid sweeteners)
  • carbonated and non-carbonated refreshing drinks
  • dairy products
  • puddings, desserts
  • ice cream and frozen desserts
  • sweets
  • chewing-gum
  • toothpaste, mouthwash
  • pharmaceuticals
neohespiridine-dc
Saccharin
History
  • the oldest sweetener, discovered back in 1879 by Constantin Fahlberg. The first Saccharin factory was founded by Fahlberg and List in 1886. Consumption rose strongly especially during the two World Wars because of a shortage of sugar.
Synthesis
  • Synthesis is carried out using either the Remsen-Fahlberg or the Maumee procedure. In the Remsen-Fahlberg procedure, toluene is converted through sulphurchlorination into the isomer compound of 2- and 4 toluenesulphonyl chloride . 2- toluenesulphonyl amide (also called OTS or OTSA) is then produced from the 2-isomer. 2-benzoic acid sulphamide is then directly obtained in an acid medium through oxidation. The corresponding salts are produced from this and purified through repeated recrystallisation (chiefly from water). This procedure is principally used in Korea.
    In the Maumee procedure, the source substance is phthalic anhydride. The anhydride is first of all converted into the imide. After oxidization into the isatoic anhydride, methyl anthranilite (artificial neroli oil) is formed. Through diazotization and transformation with sulphur dioxide and chlorine, 2-sulphonyl chloride of methyl anthranilite is obtained, which can be converted through ammonia into saccharinate. Saccharin is released from this, or it is converted into other salts.
Sensoric features / sweetening power
  • rapidly perceptible, intense sweetness
  • 300 – 500-times
Physiological characteristics
  • is quickly absorbed, excreted unmetabolized and unchanged by the kidneys
  • no physiological gross calorific value i.e. calorie-free
  • toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
Technical characteristics
  • colourless crystals or white, crystalline, odourless powder
  • common mesh sizes:
    • 18-20 mesh (1000-850 um)
    • 20-40 mesh (850-425 um)
    • 40-80 mesh (425-180 um)
    • 80-150 mesh (180-100 um)
    • 60-100 mesh (250-150 um; bei Saccharin Säure)
  • extremely thermostable
  • suitable for baking and cooking
  • storage-stable
  • pH value:
    • 2.0 with Saccharin Acid
    • 5.0 with Saccharin Calcium
    • 6.5-7.0 with Sodium Saccharin
  • bitter, metallic aftertaste
ADI-value
  • 5 mg per kg of bodyweight
Fields of application
  • table-top sweeteners (tablets, spoon-for-spoon powders and liquid sweeteners)
  • water- and milk-based drinks
  • puddings, desserts
  • sweets, chocolate
  • bakery products and baking mixtures
  • muesli, cornflakes, cereals
  • chewing-gum
  • spreads
  • jams, marmalades
  • canned preserves and pickled vegetables
  • marinades, sauces, delicacies
  • toothpaste, mouthwash
  • pharmaceuticals
  • Galvano
saccharin_insoluble_4
natrium-saccharin
calcium-saccharin
Steviol glycosides ('Stevia')
History
  • The sweet-tasting leaves were discovered long ago by the inhabitants of Paraguay and Brazil.
Synthesis
  • Steviol glycosides are glycosides occurring in the leaves of the Stevia Rebaudiana, a plant native to Latin America. Stevioside, which makes up 7% of the content of the dried leaves, is isolated through water or a mixture of water and alcohol and then purified.
Sensoric features / sweetening power
  • liquorice aftertaste
  • 100-150-times
Physiological characteristics
  • is converted in the body like a glycoside
  • toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
Technical characteristics
  • at high temperatures, its stability depends on the pH-value; it is more unstable in an acid medium
  • storage-stable
Situation of approval
  • Steviol glycosides are approved in the EU, in Asia and in Latin America.
ADI-value
  • not established
Fields of application
  • refreshing drinks
  • table-top sweeteners
  • sweets
  • Asian foodstuffs such as sauces and pickles
stevia_-_steviosid
Sucralose
History
  • discovered in 1976 by Hough and Phadnis. From 1980 onwards joint technical development by Tate & Lyle and McNeil Speciality Products (a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson)
Synthesis
  • The source material for the production of Sucralose is saccharose, which is derivatised into Sucralose via a synthetisation process
Sensoric features / sweetening power
  • very sweet taste profile, very close to sugar
  • 400-600 times sweeter than sugar
Physiological characteristics
  • calorie-free
  • toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
Technical characteristics
  • dissolves well in water
  • very stable
  • synergistic effects with all other sweeteners; best synergism with Cyclamate
Situation of approval
  • approved in the countries of Latin America and Asia and, since 1998, in the USA and Canada. Approved in the EU since 2004!!
ADI-value
  • 15 mg per kg of bodyweight
Fields of application
  • table-top sweeteners (tablets, spoon-for-spoon powders and liquid sweeteners)
  • refreshing drinks
  • bakery products and baking mixes
  • sweets
  • dairy products
  • chewing-gum
  • sauces
  • canned fruits
sucralose_4
Blends of sweeteners

The most common mixture of sweeteners, which we also supply as a standard product, is the mixture of 10:1 Sodium Cyclamate – Sodium Saccharin.
In other words, the mixture consists of 10 parts Sodium Cyclamate plus 1 part Sodium Saccharin 450-times, 40-80 mesh. The sweetening power, including synergism, is 100 times that of the sugar equivalent. Many combinations can be produced from several individual sweeteners. These combinations usually have synergistic effects and offer sensory advantages.

Further information on sweeteners you can also find on the website of the Suessstoff-Verband.

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